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Technoscience suggests that science and technology are relational, rather than two separate elements. Instead of being separate, Hottois and Latour argue that science is always enabled by technology, and technology and science are co-produced. The notion indicates a common recognition that scientific knowledge is not only socially coded and historically situated but sustained and made durable by material (non-human) networks.

The term Technoscience was coined by Belgian philosopher Gilbert Hottois[1] in the late 1970s. It has been applied by sociologist Bruno Latour to study scientists and engineers in society, as well as technology and humanity.[2]



  1. Hottois, Gilbert (1984). Le signe et la technique. La philosophie à l’épreuve de la technique, Paris, Aubier Montaigne, Coll. «Res - L’invention philosophique», p.59-60.
  2. Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674792912.